John R. Patrick, Doctor of Health Administration (DHA), President of Attitude LLC and former Vice President of Internet Technology at IBM, in his 2016 book titled Election Attitude: How Internet Voting Leads to a Stronger Democracy, wrote:
"At one point, there were 19 voting machine companies listed in the Federal Election Commission Buyers Guide, but the guide is no longer available. Through a series of mergers, acquisitions, and business failures, the voting machine industry currently is dominated by the three companies. All three companies are privately held and do not disclose their revenue or profits.
Dominion Voting Systems Corporation is based in Toronto, Canada. It sells electronic voting and tabulating hardware around the world. In May 2010, Dominion acquired Premier Election Solutions, formerly Diebold Election Systems, from Election Systems & Software. They just had acquired Premier Election from Diebold, but were required by the United States Department of Justice to sell Premier Election Solutions for anti-trust concerns.
Election Systems & Software, based in Omaha, Nebraska, is the giant of the voting machine industry. In addition to a line of hardware products, the company provides equipment rental, print services, maintenance services, ballot management services, election support, professional services, and voter registration mailing services. The company's equipment, software, and services are used by municipalities and counties throughout the U.S.
HartInterCivic based in Austin, Texas, has been working with election professionals for more than 100 years. The company makes a wide range of voting machines hardware and services. Its election services include consultation, training, professional services, preventative maintenance, and ballot production services. The company claims its mission is to help advance democracy one election at a time."
VotingIndustry.com included a list of electronic voting machine vendors, categorized into tiers based on their market prominence, on their website (accessed Aug. 17, 2006):
"First Tier voting systems vendors - We again consider First Tier vendors to be firms you simply can't ignore. The grouping here is somewhat artificial. However, these are the big 4 vendors that control the lion's share of the industry: Election Systems and Software [ES&S], Diebold Election Systems, Sequoia, and Hart Intercivic.
Second Tier voting systems vendors include: AccuPoll (has filed for bankruptcy), Advanced Voting Solutions, Avante, Unilect, and Voting Technologies International.
Internet and other voting system vendors - Here is a list of of Internet Voting Companies, Regional Voting Firms and Other elections firms that may have older or very new products: AutoMARK Corporation, Comfidex Corporation, Danaher Corporation, Democracy Systems, MicroVote, Populex, SafeVote [Internet voting systems only], Dategrity (formerly VoteHere), and TruVote."
CorpWatch, a corporate watchdog website, published a Sep. 8, 2004 article titled "November Surprise: Electronic Voting Machines Add Uncertainty to Close Election Races," which stated:
"The Federal Election Commission states that 19 companies produce DREs [as of Feb 20, 2003; list has since been removed from the FEC website; last attempt to access on Aug. 17, 2006], but the market is dominated by just four: Election Systems and Software (ES&S), Diebold Election Systems, Sequoia Voting Systems, and Hart Intercivic.
Between DREs and other voting technologies, machines of these four companies will tally nearly 100 million votes this Election Day, the vast majority of those cast. Furthermore, nearly 50 percent of precincts will use machines created by ES&S."
The Election Technology Council stated in the "Frequently Asked Questions" section of their website (accessed Oct. 2005) :
Technology Council (ETC) is a group of companies that offer products
and services which support the electoral process and decided to work
together to address common issues facing the industry. These companies
believe that the voting infrastructure in the United State in pressing
need of improvement, and that electronic systems introduce new levels
of voting inclusiveness, accuracy, efficiency and accessibility...
members of the ETC are: Advanced Voting Systems, Diebold Election
Systems, Election Systems and Software, Hart InterCivic, Sequoia Voting
Systems, and Unilect Corporation. The Council has been joined by
Danaher Guardian Voting Systems, VoteHere, and Perfect Voting Systems."