Last updated on: 12/9/2022 | Author:


The background and pro and con arguments were written by staff based upon input from the following sources.

1.Douglas W. Jones, “A Brief Illustrated History of Voting,”, 2001
2.Voting Viva Voce, “Public Voting: Before the Secret Ballot,” (accessed Sep. 13, 2022)
3.Alexia Lachavanne, “The Advantages of Gambia’s Unique Marble Voting System,”, June 1, 2022
4.Charles Girard, “Acclamation Voting in Sparta: An Early Use of Approval Voting,” Handbook on Approval Voting,, Jan. 2010
5.The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica, “Australian Ballot,”, May 5, 2017
6.MIT Election Data & Science Lab, “Voting Technology,” (accessed Sep. 13, 2022)
7.Owen Edwards, “When Pulling a Lever Tallied the Vote,”, Nov. 2004, “CPI Inflation Calculator,” (accessed Sep. 13, 2022)
9.IBM, “Port-A-Punch,” (accessed Sep. 14, 2022)
10.Verified Voting, “ES&S Votomatic,” (accessed Sep. 14, 2022)
11.The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica, “Bush v. Gore,”, Dec. 5, 2021
12.US Election Assistance Committee, “Help America Vote Act,” (accessed Sep. 15, 2022)
13.National Conference of State Legislatures, “Electronic Ballot Return,”, Aug. 15, 2022
14.National Conference of State Legislatures, “Voting Equipment,”, July 9, 2021
15.Board of Elections in the City of New York, “Ballot Marking Device,” (accessed Dec. 12, 2022
16.Matt Vasilogambros and Lindsey Van Ness, “Despite Security Concerns, Online Voting Advances,”, Feb. 17, 2021
17.National Democratic Institute, “Internet Voting in Estonia,” (accessed Dec. 12, 2022)
18.Smartmatic, “Bulgaria: First Binding E-Vote Is 100% Accurate,”, (accessed Dec. 12, 2022)
19.Matt Zdun,” Machine Politics: How America Casts and Counts Its Votes,”, Aug. 23, 2022
20.Alfred Ng, “Lawmakers Turn to Hackers at Defcon for Election Security,”, Aug. 8, 2019
21.Merriam Webster, “White Hat,” (accessed Dec. 8, 2022)
22.Danielle Root, et al., “Election Security in All 50 States,”, Feb. 12, 2018
23.Ellen Nakashima and Amy Gardner, “No Evidence of Exploitation of Dominion Voting Machine Flaws, Cisa Finds,”, May 28, 2022
24.Eric Geller, "Some States Have Embraced Online Voting. It’s a Huge Risk.,”, June 8, 2020
25.Michael A. Specter and J. Alex Halderman, “Security Analysis of the Democracy Live Online Voting System,”, June 7, 2020
26.Tamas Kadar, “What Is Browser Fingerprinting & How Does It Work?,” (accessed Oct. 12, 2022)
27.Democracy Live, “OmniBallot Fact Sheet,” (accessed Dec. 8, 2022)
28.Michael A. Specter, James Koppel, and Daniel Weitzner, “The Ballot is Busted Before the Blockchain: A Security Analysis of Voatz, the First Internet Voting Application Used in U.S. Federal Elections,”, Feb. 2020
29.National Institute of Standards and Technology, “Risk Management for Electronic Ballot Delivery, Marking, and Return,”, May 2020
30.Aviel Rubin, “Why Internet Voting Is a Nonstarter,”, Summer 2016
31.Turquoise Baker, et al., “Voting Machines at Risk in 2022,”, Mar. 1, 2022
32.Anthony Fowler, “New Survey Reveals Concerns about the Security of the Nation’s Voting System ahead of the Midterm Elections,”, Oct. 10, 2018
33.Kate Brumback, “Cyber Agency: Voting Software Vulnerable in Some States,”, May 31, 2022
34.Elections Infrastructure Initiatives, “New Report Finds That More Than $50 Billion Is Needed to Modernize and Run State and Local Elections Infrastructure,”, Dec. 14, 2021
35.Statista, “Internet User Penetration in the United States from 2018 to 2027,”, Aug. 31, 2022
36.Statista, “Share of Adults in the United States Who Use the Internet in 2021, by Age Group,”, Jul. 26, 2022
37.Statista, “Share of Adults in the United States Who Use the Internet in 2021, by Ethnicity,”, Jul. 7, 2022
38.Statista, “Share of Adults in the United States Who Use the Internet in 2021, by Urbanity,”, Jul. 7, 2022
39.Statista, “Share of Adults in the United States Who Use the Internet in 2021, by Annual Household Income,”, Jul. 7, 2022
40.Yes Elections, “What Are the Leading Benefits of Online Voting?,”, Dec. 23, 2020
41.Amelia Powers-Gardner and Chris Walker, “We Must Consider Secure Online Voting,”, Mar. 30, 2020